Charles Dickens, full name Charles John Heifam Dickens (English name: Charles John Huffam Dickens, February 7, 1812 - June 9, 1870), British writer. The main works are "David Copperfield" "Pickwick rumor" "fog are orphans" "old antique shop" "hard times" "our common friend" "Tale of Two Cities" and so on.
Dickens was born on February 7, 1812 in the suburbs of Portsmouth, was born in the Navy staff family, juvenile family life because of distress, only intermittent school. After being forced to work in the factory to do child labor. After 15 years old, became a law firm apprentice, record and court scorer. 20 years old when the newspaper interviewer, reported the House of Commons. In 1837 he completed the first novel "Pickwick rumor", is the first realist novel creation, and later creative talent to mature, has published "fog orphans" (1838), "old antique shop" (1850), "The Times of Hardness" (1854), "Tale of Two Cities" (1859) "Great Expectations" (1861), 1870 June 9 died in Rochester near the Gates Villa.
Dickens especially paid attention to describing the life of the "little people" living in the bottom of the British society, and profoundly reflected the complex social reality of Britain at that time, and made outstanding contributions to the development and development of British critical realist literature. His works have had a profound impact on the development of English literature.
On February 7, 1812, Charles Dickens was born in Portsmouth. Father John Dickens is the British Navy Quartermaster staff, mother named Elizabeth Barrow. Charles is the eldest son, sister Fanny Dickens is two years older than him. In December 1813, the family moved to Shaoxi.
In 1821, Charles Dickens went to William Giles to do the school to study, writing the tragedy "Indian monarch Misner".
On February 20, 1824, John Dickens was arrested on charges of debt, in the Marshall West debtor prison. A few weeks later his wife Elizabeth and young children also moved into them. Previously, Charles Dickens was on February 9 into the Warren black shoe oil workshop as a child worker, so there is no family with the prison, alone in a friend home to spend the night. On May 28, John Dickens was released and the whole family lived in Johnson Street in Sommers Town. Then Charles Dickens left the workshop.
In 1825, Charles Dickens entered the Wellington House School. In 1826, John Dickens was sent by the British news agency to the parliament as an interviewer. The family was expelled for rent. Charles Dickens was forced to drop out of school, successively in the Ellis and Blackman law firm and Charles Molloy law firm as apprentice.
In 1829, Charles Dickens Society shorthand, into the London Civil Lawyers Court, as the trial stenographer. In May 1830, he fell in love with the banker's daughter Maria Bieder Nair.
In 1831, Charles Dickens served as a journalist of the Parliament Mirror, edited by his uncle, J. M. Barrow. In 1832, Charles Dickens served as a reporter for the "true" newspaper. His work was quite successful at the same time, and his dramatic genius was discovered by the Covington Court, the theater intends to hire him, and has informed him to audition, but a disease to prevent him as an actor's future.
In 1833, Charles Dickens and his brothers and sisters lived in Bundink Street, where he often held amateur theater performances at home. He pleaded with Maria Biederner and was rejected. Creation of the first short story "Mr. Mins and his cousin" (post-income "Bozite set") to send "monthly magazine", immediately adopted, was greatly encouraged.
In 1834, Charles Dickens served as a journalist. In August, he met the "Chronicle" editor George Hogarth daughter Catherine Hogarth. His short stories, close-up and essays on the "Boz" pen name, one after another in the "magazine", "Bell Weekly" and "Morning News" published. He began to live independently at the Fernivals hotel.
In 1835, Charles Dickens was engaged with Catherine Hoghes. His stories, close-ups and essays continue to be published in the Monthly Magazine, The Chronicle, and Bell's Life in London.
1836, February 8, "Bozite set" first series published. March 31, the first novel "Pickwick rumor" by Chapman and Hall Press began monthly by section published (20 months out). On April 2, Charles Dickens married Catherine Hoggas at St. Louis' s church in Chelsea and immediately went to Kent honeymoon. 9 - 12 months, the drama "strange gentleman" and "Qiao village" in the St. James Theater staged. In December, he became acquainted with John Foster, who became his lifelong friend and biographer (three volumes of The Dickens Biography) published in 1872-1874). December 17, "Bozite set" second series published.
January 1, 1837, Charles Dickens editor of the monthly magazine "Bentley magazine" first issue. The second issue of the journal serialized his "Oliver Te West" (24 months finished). On January 6th, Charles Dickens's first child (Charles) was born. March, the play "Is she his wife?" Staged at the St. James Theater. In July, the first visit to Europe. November 17, "Pickwick rumor" single book published.
1838 January and February, accompanied by H. K. Brown interviewed Yorkshire school. The second child (Mary) was born. On March 31, we began to publish "Nicholas Nickel Bay" (20 months out). November 9, "Oliver Te West" (fog orphans) published a single book.
January 31, 1839, resigned from the "Bentley magazine" editor in chief. The third child (Kate) was born. On October 23rd, "Nicholas Nickel" was published separately.
April 4, 1840, editor of the literary weekly "Humphrey master of the bell" first issue. April 25, "old antique shop" in the weekly sub-series (40 weeks finished). In October, "Humphrey Master's Bell" was published in the first volume.
In 1841, the fourth child (Walter) was born. February 13, "Barnaby Rach" in the "Humphrey Master's Bell" weekly on the serial (42 weeks finished). April, December, "Humphrey master of the bell" single book second volume, third volume published. December 5, "old antique shop", "Barnaby Rach" single book published.
From January to June 1842, his wife visited the United States. 10 - 11 months, accompanied by Foster and other visits to Cornwall. October 19, "travel beauty notes" published. On December 31, Martin Jussewell Witt began to be published monthly by Chapman and Hall Publishing (20 months out).
October 5, 1843, hosted the opening ceremony of the Manchester Literary Association. December 19, "Christmas carol" (post-income "Christmas story set") published.
In 1844, the fifth child (Francis) was born. With Chapman and Hall Press, the book was revised by Bradbury and Evans Press. In July, "Martin Jussewell Witt" published a single book. July 16, to live in Genoa, Italy. November 30 to December 8, back to London to read the "church bells" to friends. December 16, "Church Bell" (post-income "Christmas Stories") published.
In 1845, his wife visited Naples. In September, amateur performance Ben Jiong's drama "Everyone is happy". The sixth child (Alfred) was born. December 20, "Fireside Cricket" (post-income "Christmas Stories") published.
January 21, 1846 to February 9, editor of "Daily News". May 18, "Italian style" published. June 11 to November 16, to live in Lausanne, Switzerland, after going to Paris. September 30, "Dong Bei father and son" began month by month published (20 months out). December 19 "Battle of Life" (post-income "Christmas Stories") published.
February 28, 1847, returned from Paris to London. The seventh child (Sidney) was born.
In April 1848, "Dong Bei father and son" published a single book. May-July, amateur directors and performances in London and outside. December 19, "the devil man" (after the income "Christmas story set") published.
In 1849, the eighth child (Henry) was born. On April 30, "David Copperfield" began to be published month by month (20 months out).
The ninth child (Dora) was born in 1850. And Bewei Li Dayton to create a literary association. March 30, editor of literary weekly
Since January 1851, "Children's British History" began in the "homely" weekly serial. Held amateur theater performances at Lucken Mumburg. April 14, daughter Dora died.
In 1852, the tenth child (Edward) was born. In the north show Bu Wei a Li Dayton drama. In October, go to the French Poloni holiday. "Desolate Villa" began to be published month by month (20 months out). "Christmas story set" single book published. In 1853, living in the French Poloni. Chicken Wilke Collins Tour Switzerland. In September, "desolate Villa" single book published. On December 27th, in Birmingham for the first time held a public recitation performance, recitation "Christmas carol".
In 1854, in January, visit Lancashire Preston. Summer to France Poloni. April 1 to August 12, "difficult times" in the "homely" on the serial, the same year out of the book.
In February 1855, with Maria Biederner reunion, then she has become a wife of Wende. In June, he directed and performed Collins' "Lighthouse". Participate in the Administrative Reform Association. In October, the family went to Paris to live. December 1, "small Du Li" began month by month published (20 months out of Qi).
In March 1856, buy the village of Gates. April, back to the UK. In January 1857, director and performance of the drama of Collins "deep ice." Andersen visits Gates to visit Dickens. Playing in Manchester with the actress Ellen Ternan and his mother, his sister get to know. "Little Du Li" single book published. In October, the two lazy apprenticeships, co-authored with Collins, were published in "homely".
April 29, 1858 to July 22, held in London business recitation performance. May, separated from his wife Catherine, the community have talked about. June 12, in the "homely" published on their own family disputes statement. August 2 to November 13, held in England, Scotland and Ireland throughout the first tour recitation performance.
April 30, 1859, Dickens editor of the literary weekly "year round" the first issue, the first issue of serial number "Tale of Two Cities", to November 26 end. In the same year, May 28, "homely" the last issue of the publication. In October, a second tour recitation was held.
In 1860, the second woman Kate Dickens married Charles Collins (Wilji's brother). Charles Dickens settled in Gates Villa. January 28, "non-travel salesman notes" began in the "four seasons" on the serial. December 1, "great future" began in the "year round" on the serial.
1861, March-April, held in London recitation performance. August, "lofty future" single book published. "Non Travel Traveler Notes" is published separately. October to January the following year, to the field held recitation performances. 1862, March-June, held in London recitation performance.
In January 1863, the British Embassy in Paris held a recital performance for charity purposes. On May 1, 1864, "our common friends" began to be published month by month (20 months out). June 9, 1865, and Alan Ternan travel by train in Kent, Sri Lanka, a car accident. In November, "our common friend" is published separately. December, "Non Travel Travelers Notes" second edition published.
1866 April-June, held in London and abroad recitation performance. From January to May in 1867, recitation performances were held in England and Ireland. In November, went to the United States to carry out recitation performances. The last Christmas story "This road is not available" (with Collins) in the "year round" published.
On April 22, 1868, the United States returned to England. October, held a farewell recitation performance. January 5, 1869, recitation performance "Oliver Te West" in the "Sikes Khan Nancy" chapter. April 22, due to health reasons to suspend recitation performance.
In 1870 January, held in London 12 farewell recitation performances. March 9, received by the Queen Victoria. April 1, "Druid's mystery" began to sub-published (plan divided into 12, died only completed 6). June 9, suffering from cerebral hemorrhage died in the Gates Villa. After his death he was buried at the Cape of the Westminster, and his tombstone wrote: "He is a poor, suffering and sympathetic to the oppressed people; his death has left the world a great British writer."
Dickens 18 years old that year in the family between the small theater troupe met Maria Pittel. Maria is the daughter of a small banker, much better than the poor family Dickens. Her parents strongly disagreed with the exchanges between them, combined with Maria is not a serious woman to treat life, since the two sides feel that each other's love of Dickens summon the courage to talk to Maria after the love suffered a cold refused. The experience of Dickens in the mind carved a deep imprint, so that he contemptuous reality of women and love fantasy ideal women.
In the "Pickwick rumor" published during the period, Dickens and Catherine Hodges love, and married on April 2, 1836. Although this marriage healed his injury in his first love, but did not bring happiness to Dickens. On the one hand from their husband and wife in the mind, character, interest on the very different; the other hand with Dickens look forward to the ideal of women, that the reality can not find such a lovely, faithful woman.
Dickens and Catherine's marriage began to fall into a painful situation, but he and Catherine's sister was exceptionally well. After his marriage with Catherine, 16-year-old Mary (Catherine has two sisters, Mary ranked third) often come home to the guest, which makes him have enough chance to get along with Mary. Some people say that Dickens loved the original is Mary, although this is not conclusive evidence, but Mary in the eyes of Dickens is indeed the embodiment of the ideal woman. Novel "old antique shop" in the Nile is the shape of the shape of Mary.
In May 1837, Mary suddenly died, which makes Dickens very sad. In a few weeks time Dickens can not cheer up to work. A few years later recalled the scene, he wrote: "After her death, for several months - I remember half a year - I have a night with a quiet happy dream of her, it is so happy, So that I did not expect her to come back with this image or the image without going to sleep overnight.
In the year of Dickens's death, he was more fond of Mary's thoughts. He said: "She always so deeply in my thoughts ... and even her memories become an important part of my survival, such as my heart beating with my survival can not be separated.
In 1858, Dickens and Catherine officially separated.
创作： 狄更斯生活在英国由封建社会向资本主义社会过渡时期。资本主义的发展使大批小资产者贫困、破产，无产阶级遭到残酷的剥削而沦为赤贫。当时在英国发生的无产阶级革命运动,即宪章运动,给予狄更斯很大的影响，他的作品反映了宪章运动时代人民群众的情绪和要求,但他始终是个改良主义者。他同情劳苦人民,又害怕革命。他抨击资本主义制度,不断揭露它的罪恶,但他不主张推翻这一制度。他希望通过教育和感化来改造剥削者，并依靠他们的善心和施舍来消除社会矛盾。他以生动、幽默的笔触，真实、深刻地反映了生活。在他从事创作的34年中，他写了14部长篇小说（其中有一部未完成），许多中、短篇小说以及杂文、游记、戏剧等。狄更斯的创作大致可分为 4个时期。
后期（1848～1861） 这是狄更斯创作的繁荣时期。由于英、法革命运动的失败，资产阶级的反动势力更加嚣张，狄更斯对社会的认识不断深化，作品反映的社会生活也更加广阔。他着力描写小人物的善良、温情和道德感化的力量。乐观主义精神已被沉重、苦闷的心情和强烈的愤懑所代替。这时主要的作品有《董贝父子》、《大卫科波菲尔》、 《荒凉山庄》、 《艰难时世》、《小杜丽》、《双城记》和《远大前程》等。这些作品的主题思想不断深化；艺术风格也有了与前不同的特色。作者善于运用典型的细节表现人物的特征；在着力描写小人物善良、温情和道德感化的力量的同时，对资产阶级的罪恶和惨无人道的社会制度作了具有强烈感染力的艺术概括。